Статические маршруты в сетях организаций

После того, как в нашей организации появились локальные сети в различных адресных пространствах, подключение к различным серверам стало головной болью. После долгих философских размышлений пришлось задуматься о статических маршрутах, то есть прописанных на постоянной основе.

Все действия выполнялись на рабочей станции Fedora 27.

Рекогносцировка

Посмотреть текущие маршруты можно командой:

# route

или

# netstat -r

Маршрут добавляется в таблицу следующей командой:

# route add -net 10.32.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gateway 192.168.0.10 enp2s0

Такая запись будет обозначать, что все пакеты, адресом назначения которых будет являться сеть 10.32.4.0/24, должны отправиться на адрес 192.168.0.10 через интерфейс enp2s0. Естественно, мы должны быть уверены, что 192.168.0.10 знает, куда их направить дальше.

Узел

Существует синтаксис для узла:

# route add -host 192.168.40.9 gw 192.168.1.1 dev enp2s0

Такая запись будет равнозначна:

# route add -net 192.168.40.9 netmask 255.255.255.255 gateway 192.168.1.1 dev enp2s0

Иными словами, маска /32 (255.255.255.255) используется для хоста, а маска /0 (0.0.0.0) используется для маршрута по умолчанию (все).


Маршрут по умолчанию

# route add default gw <IP>

Удаление

Удаление маршрутов производится заменой команды add на команду del (указываем те же параметры).


Удаляем статический маршрут Linux

# route del -net 10.0.100.0 netmask 255.255.255.0

Постоянные маршруты

Добавленные таким образом маршруты являются временными, могут пропасть после перезагрузки сетевой подсистемы. Чтобы сделать их постоянными, создадим файлы следующего вида:

# vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-enp2s0

10.0.0.0/8 via 192.168.0.10

И перезапустим сетевую подсистему.

Например, в Fedora 27 маршруты остались рабочими даже при перезагрузки всей системы целиком!

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